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Intravenous infusion drug administration: flushing guidance

Theoretically there is a risk of under dosing, and this is evident in the literature. However, when an intermittent infusion is administered at regular intervals, the drug contained in the infusion...

Investigating the effect of local warming on vein diameter in the antecubital area in adults aged 20-40 years

The present study was a prospective, non-randomised trial that was performed in the radiology department of a hospital affiliated with Guilan University of Medical Sciences. It involved 55 healthy...

Reassessing standards of vascular access device care: a follow-up audit

Clinical audit is at the heart of clinical governance; it is necessary for reviewing the quality of care provided and to support continuous quality improvement (Health Quality Improvement Partnership...

Postoperative cognitive decline: the nurse's role in identifying this underestimated and misinterpreted condition

The social consequences of postoperative cognitive changes are important. There is a relationship between these changes and dementia, which is strongly supported by epidemiological, clinical,...

Adult pain assessment and management

Before diving into the assessment process, it is necessary to have a general understanding of the various types of pain that can be experienced, as well as how these are manifested. This understanding...

Transanal irrigation: an alternative therapy for bowel dysfunction?

First-line treatments for bowel problems should be conservative and usually include dietary adjustments, fibre supplements, lifestyle changes, laxatives (including specialist initiated medication such...

Rationale and procedure for performing digital removal of faeces

Under normal circumstances, an individual adopts a sitting or squatting position allowing for straightening of the anorectal angle and the relaxation of the external anal sphincter and puborectalis...

Blood glucose monitoring in diabetes: rationale and procedure

The measurement of blood glucose provides information on the effectiveness of blood glucose metabolism and guides interventions to achieve optimal glucose control within the body..

Health literacy and liver cirrhosis: testing three screening tools for face validity

Between November 2017 and February 2018, 133 outpatients were screened for the study. Twenty-five patients were not included, mainly due to HE, cognitive impairment and language problems. The...

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