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Clinical Skills

Shock: aetiology, pathophysiology and management

Patients can experience shock for a number of reasons, including physical trauma, blood loss, dehydration or allergic reaction (Tait, 2022). Shock is used as an overarching term to describe a patient...

A guide to undertaking and understanding blood pressure measurement

A BP measurement, in its simplest form, is a determinant of individual cardiac output (the volume of blood pumped out of the heart and into the aorta per minute) and the systematic vascular resistance...

The endocrine system and associated disorders

All glandular tissues produce secretions. Exocrine glands are arranged so they secrete theirs via a central duct, which directs the secretions (hormones) to the desired location, for example sweat...

The diagnostic reasoning involved in interpreting blood results

The body produces blood cells by a process called haemopoiesis in the bone marrow, which is a spongy tissue found in the centre of the bones. Infants produce bone marrow in most of their skeleton but,...

Skin assessment in adults

Early recognition of people who are at risk of developing skin breakdown is an essential part of prevention. Assessment of the skin should be part of a holistic approach and carried out regularly in...

Observed structured clinical examination as a means of assessing clinical skills competencies of ANPs

OSCEs were primarily introduced in medical education as a means of assessing the skills and ability of surgical students, rather than a test of factual knowledge (Cuschieri et al, 1979). The use of...

Pathophysiology applied to nursing: the basis for disease and illness

The word patho originates from the Greek pathos which means to suffer and logos implies a discourse or to study. Pathophysiology is the study of changes in body physiology at molecular, cellular and...

The recognition and nursing management of common oncological emergencies in children

In the UK each year, around 1900 new cases of childhood (0-14 years) cancers are diagnosed (Children with Cancer UK, 2021). The most common are:.

Easier, quicker, safer: an enhanced instrument count procedure

In response to the challenges posed by the TICP, I developed an enhanced instrument count procedure (EICP), which has resulted in an easier, quicker, safer approach to instrument counting. The EICP...

Assessing the patient's needs and planning effective care

Planning care is essential in the delivery of appropriate nursing care. Following assessment of a patient's needs, the next stage is to ‘plan care’ to address the actual and potential problems that...

Critical thinking and diagnostic reasoning of the heart and cardiovascular system

Chest pain is a common complaint, comprising up to 25% of emergency department attendances (Byrne, 2014). Not all of these will have a cardiac complaint; however, it is crucial to recognise important...

Managing anaphylaxis in adults

‘A serious multi-systemic hypersensitivity reaction that is usually rapid in onset and may result in death.’ .

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