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Clinical

A brief guide to immunisation and the immunocompromised child or young person

During immunosuppression, the normal function of the immune system is inhibited. Treatments, such as chemotherapy, disrupt the normal function of the cell cycle, which consequently causes...

The diagnosis and management of acute hyponatraemia in critical care

The recognised normal range for serum sodium concentration (SNa) in adults is accepted as 135-145 millimoles per litre (mmol/litre). Hyponatraemia is more commonly an excess of total body water rather...

Hypothermia and cold injuries in children and young people

Although often associated with extreme conditions and environments such as during military combat, natural disaster or arctic exploration, hypothermia and cold injuries can also occur in more familiar...

A guide to undertaking and understanding blood pressure measurement

A BP measurement, in its simplest form, is a determinant of individual cardiac output (the volume of blood pumped out of the heart and into the aorta per minute) and the systematic vascular resistance...

Skin assessment in adults

Early recognition of people who are at risk of developing skin breakdown is an essential part of prevention. Assessment of the skin should be part of a holistic approach and carried out regularly in...

The recognition and nursing management of common oncological emergencies in children

In the UK each year, around 1900 new cases of childhood (0-14 years) cancers are diagnosed (Children with Cancer UK, 2021). The most common are:.

Assessing the patient's needs and planning effective care

Planning care is essential in the delivery of appropriate nursing care. Following assessment of a patient's needs, the next stage is to ‘plan care’ to address the actual and potential problems that...

Managing anaphylaxis in adults

‘A serious multi-systemic hypersensitivity reaction that is usually rapid in onset and may result in death.’ .

Transitioning end-of-life care from hospital to the community: case report

This article concerns the case of Martin Jones (not his real name), aged 59 years, who had been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. He had undergone a partial pancreatectomy to remove the tumour and was...

The global elements of vital signs' assessment: a guide for clinical practice

Changes in respiratory function are increasingly recognised as the most sensitive indicator of clinical deterioration (Cahill et al, 2011). Respiratory rate is an early and extremely good indicator of...

A brief overview of fetal alcohol syndrome for health professionals

Alcohol is a teratogen that has a toxic effect on the developing fetus (BMA, 2007a). FASD is seen as a non-diagnostic umbrella term (Riley et al, 2011; Nash and Davies, 2017; Blagg and Tulich, 2018)...

Chronic limb ischaemia: case study and clinical literature review

PAD affects more than 200 million people worldwide (Yang et al, 2017) and is the third most common clinical presentation of atherosclerosis after coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke (Song et al,...

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