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Changes to nurse-to-patient ratios in intensive care during the pandemic

‘Ventilated patients must have a registered nurse/patient ratio of a minimum 1:1 to deliver direct care. A greater ratio than 1:1 may be required to safely meet the needs of some critically ill...

Equal efficacy of gastric and jejunal tube feeding in liver cirrhosis and/or alcoholic hepatitis: a randomised controlled study

All patients provided informed written consent to take part. Overall, the study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The experimental protocol was approved by the Central...

Using dried blood spot testing for diagnosing viral hepatitis

A DBS sample is obtained by a finger-tip skin puncture using a lancet, then collecting capillary blood onto a filter paper test (see Figure 1). This technique was developed by Ivar Christian Bang in...

A Guide to the Gut Microbiome and its Relevance to Critical Care

If abnormalities in the gut microbiome may be a risk factor for —or directly contribute to—particular diseases, then attempting to alter the gut microbiome back to a ‘normal’ state may be an...

Supporting the individual to engage with compression therapy

‘What is the difference between those who are reluctant and those who are accepting of their LTC in their lives? .

COVID-19 and hand hygiene: the vital importance of hand drying

Residual moisture on the hands and the amount of time hands are wet or exposed to wetness, are factors of importance in terms of hand hygiene and infection prevention. Water exposure can cause...

Implementing enhanced patient education for surgical site infection prevention in cardiac surgery

Findings from the surveys are displayed using descriptive analysis. Nonparametric data are presented with median and range. Frequency distribution of aggregate scores are provided for ordinal data...

How widely has ANTT been adopted in NHS hospitals and community care organisations in England and Scotland?

ANTT is a clinical practice framework for the education, practice and research of the critical clinical competency of aseptic technique. Based on a novel concept of Key-Part and Key-Site Protection,...

An overview of sacral neuromodulation: a treatment for patients with symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction

SNM is believed to work by electrically stimulating the S3 and/or S4 sacral spinal nerves (Mitchell et al, 2011). Exactly how this produces a decrease in bladder symptoms in humans is not fully...

Intermittent self-catheterisation: a person-centred approach

Some patients who are required to start ISC are already aware of the significant symptomatic impact of their urinary retention on their daily activities. These patients may be struggling with urinary...

Review of normal gastrointestinal tract, ulcerative colitis, proctitis and rectal medication adherence

Many parts of the GI tract can be problematic in disease. An ulcerated mouth can make ingestion painful and this may result in anorexia or weight loss. A diseased small bowel might result in a reduced...

Asthma guidelines: the best of three

The GINA report of 2020 (GINA, 2020) is the only guideline so far to have published guidance during the pandemic, although both the BTS and NICE have published separate documents on the subject. GINA...

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