Adhyam M, Gupta AK. A review on the clinical utility of PSA in cancer prostate. Indian J Surg Oncol. 2012; 3:(2)120-129

Anderson B, Marshall-Lucette S. Prostate cancer among Jamaican men: exploring the evidence for higher risk. Br J Nurs. 2016; 25:(19)1046-1051

Attard G, Parker C, Eeles RA Prostate cancer. Lancet. 2016; 387:(10013)70-82

Bacigalupe G, Askari SF. E-Health innovations, collaboration, and healthcare disparities: developing criteria for culturally competent evaluation. Fam Syst Health. 2013; 31:(3)248-263

Ben-Shlomo Y, Evans S, Ibrahim F The risk of prostate cancer amongst black men in the United Kingdom: the PROCESS cohort study. Eur Urol. 2008; 53:(1)99-105

Brooks DD. Prostate cancer screening in black men-new questions, few answers. Cancer. 119:(12)2206-2208

Cancer Research UK. Prostate cancer incidence by age. 2019. (accessed 29 September 2019)

Carozza SE, Howe HL. Patterns of cancer incidence among US Hispanics/Latinos, 1995–2000. Cancer Causes Control. 2006; 17:(8)1067-1075

Chinegwundoh F, Enver M, Lee A, Nargund V, Oliver T, Ben-Shlomo Y. Risk and presenting features of prostate cancer amongst African-Caribbean, South Asian and European men in north-east London. BJU Int. 2006; 98:(6)1216-1220

Cosma G, Brown D, Shopland N PROCEE: a PROstate Cancer Evaluation and Education serious game for African Caribbean men. J Assist Technol. 2016; 10:(4)199-210

Cremin M. Meeting the unmet support needs of BME men with prostate cancer. Br J Nurs. 2015; 24:(20)1010-1014

Cybulski C, Wokołorczyk D. Progress in clinical genetics of prostate cancer. Hered Cancer Clin Pract. 2011; 9:(2)

Dunn M, Kazer M. Prostate Cancer Overview. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2011; 27:(4)241-50

Farris MS, Kopciuk KA, Courneya KS, McGregor SE, Wang Q, Friedenreich CM. Identification and prediction of health-related quality of life trajectories after a prostate cancer diagnosis. Int J Cancer. 2017; 140:(7)1517-1527

Goggins WB, Wong GKC. Poor survival for US Pacific Islander cancer patients: evidence from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database: 1991 to 2004. J Clin Oncol. 2007; 25:(36)5738-5741

Heijnsdijk E, Denham D, de Koning H. The cost-effectiveness of prostate cancer detection with the use of prostate health index. Value in Health. 2016; 19:(2)153-157

Ilunga Tshiswaka D, Donley T, Okafor A, Memiah P, Mbizo J. Prostate and colorectal cancer screening uptake among us and foreign-born males: evidence from the 2015 NHIS Survey. J Community Health. 2017; 42:(3)612-623

Jing L, Su L, Ring BZ. Ethnic background and genetic variation in the evaluation of cancer risk: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2014; 9:(6)

Jones A, Chinegwundoh F. Update on prostate cancer in black men within the UK. Ecancermedicalscience. 2014; 8

Keller A, Gericke C, Whitty J A cost-utility analysis of prostate cancer screening in Australia. Appl Health Econ Health Policy. 2017; 15:(1)95-111

Kimura T. East meets West: ethnic differences in prostate cancer epidemiology between East Asians and Caucasians. Chin J Cancer. 2012; 31:(9)421-429

Lamb DS, Bupha-Intr O, Bethwaite P, Murray J, Nacey J, Russell G, Delahunt B. Prostate cancer—are ethnic minorities disadvantaged?. Anticancer Res. 2008; 28 6B:3891-3895

Marcus P, Pashayan N, Church T Population-based precision cancer screening: a symposium on evidence, epidemiology and next steps. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarker Prev. 2016; 25:(11)1449-1455

Martinez-Tyson D, Barnett Pathak E, Soler-Vila H, Flores AM. Looking under the Hispanic umbrella: cancer mortality among Cubans, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans and other Hispanics in Florida. J Immigr Minor Health. 2009; 11:(4)249-257

Martins T, Ukoumunne OC, Banks J, Raine R, Hamilton W. Ethnic differences in patients' preferences for prostate cancer investigation: a vignette-based survey in primary care. Br J Gen Pract. 2015; 65:(632)e161-e170

McIntosh H. Why do African-American men suffer more prostate cancer?. JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997; 89:(3)188-189

NHS website. Prostate cancer. 2019. (accessed 26 September 2019)

NHS England. Implementing a timed prostate cancer diagnostic pathway: a handbook for local health and care systems. 2018. (accessed 26 September 2019)

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Suspected cancer: recognition and referral. NICE guideline [NG12]. 1.6 Urological cancers. 2017. (accessed 26 September 2019)

Powell IJ, Bock CH, Ruterbusch JJ, Sakr W. Evidence supports a faster growth rate and/or earlier transformation to clinically significant prostate cancer in black than in white American men, and influences racial progression and mortality disparity. J Urol. 2010; 183:(5)1792-1797

Pullar B, Shah N. Prostate cancer. Surgery. 2016; 34:(10)505-511

Rebbeck TR. Cancer genetics: variation by race, ethnicity, and geography. Semin Radiat Oncol. 2017; 27:(1)3-10

Rolison JJ, Hanoch Y, Miron-Shatz T. Smokers: at risk for prostate cancer but unlikely to screen. Addict Behav. 2012; 37:(6)736-738

Roth J, Gulati R, Gore J, Cooperberg M, Etzioni R. Economic analysis of prostate-specific antigen screening and selective treatment strategies. JAMA Oncol. 2016; 2:(7)890-898

Seymour-Smith S, Brown D, Cosma G, Shopland N, Battersby S, Burton A. ‘Our people has got to come to terms with that’: changing perceptions of the digital rectal examination as a barrier to prostate cancer diagnosis in African–Caribbean men. Psychooncology. 2016; 25:(10)1183-1190

Sultan DH, Rivers BM, Osongo BO Affecting African American men's prostate cancer screening decision-making through a mobile tablet-mediated intervention. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2014; 25:(3)1262-1277

Taskila T, Wilson S, Damery S Factors affecting attitudes toward colorectal cancer screening in the primary care population. Br J Cancer. 2009; 101:(2)250-255

Thompson IM, Ankerst DP. The benefits of risk assessment tools for prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2012; 61:(4)662-663

Toms C, Cahill F, George G, Van Hemelrijck M. Research engagement among black men with prostate cancer. Ecancermedicalscience. 2016; 10

Trinh QD, Li H, Meyer CP Determinants of cancer screening in Asian-Americans. Cancer Causes Control. 2016; 27:(8)989-998

von Wagner C, Baio G, Raine R Inequalities in participation in an organized national colorectal cancer screening programme: results from the first 2.6 million invitations in England. Int J Epidemiol. 2011; 40:(3)712-718

White A, Coker A, Du X, Eggleston K, Williams M. Racial/ethnic disparities in survival among men diagnosed with prostate cancer in Texas. Cancer. 2011; 117:(5)1080-1088

Xiao H, Tan F, Goovaerts P Factors associated with time-to-treatment of prostate cancer in Florida. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2013; 24:132-146

Xu J, Goodman M, Jemal A, Fedewa SA. Prostate Cancer prognostic factors among Asian patients born in the US compared to those born abroad. J Immigr Minor Health. 2015; 17:(3)625-631

The association between ethnic background and prostate cancer

10 October 2019
Volume 28 · Issue 18


Prostate cancer is a complex disease which is more prevalent among men of black and minority ethnic (BME) background than their Caucasian counterparts, with men of African-Caribbean background experiencing higher levels of incidence and mortality than any other ethnic group. The reasons behind this health inequality are poorly understood and likely to be multifactorial. Several theories have been posited, including genetic disposition, poorer access to health care, a lack of understanding of the risks posed by prostate cancer and an unwillingness to access mainstream health care. There is, however, a notable disparity between the amount of literature focusing on prostate cancer as it affects those with a BME background and on prostate cancer in general. This further compounds the difficulties encountered by BME men, who rely on health professionals being aware of the greater risk they face. More knowledge and understanding is required by both the general population and medical practitioners to address this health inequality.

Prostate cancer has long been recognised as one of the greatest threats to men's health. However, the increased risk faced by men from black and minority ethnic (BME) backgrounds is less well understood. There is evidence that BME men are both more likely than their white counterparts to develop prostate cancer and less likely to approach health professionals for assessment or treatment, which increases their risk of progression to more advanced disease. This article attempts to understand this added complexity in an already complicated disease.

Prostate cancer poses a serious threat to men's health and is a major issue in health care. Cancer of the prostate is the most common malignancy in men, accounting for almost a quarter of all male cancer diagnoses, and is the cause of 1–2% of overall deaths in men (Attard et al, 2016; Pullar and Shah, 2016). Cancer Research UK (2019) tells us that one in eight men will develop prostate cancer in their lifetime. This puts it well ahead of lung cancer, which is the second most common cancer in men, with one in 14 men developing that condition.

Register now to continue reading

Thank you for visiting British Journal of Nursing and reading some of our peer-reviewed resources for nurses. To read more, please register today. You’ll enjoy the following great benefits:

What's included

  • Limited access to clinical or professional articles

  • Unlimited access to the latest news, blogs and video content