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The renal system and associated disorders

The renal system plays an important role in homeostasis and its function is to filter approximately 200 litres of fluid each day and allow excretion of toxins and metabolic waste while keeping...

Monitoring of blood glucose levels, ketones and insulin bolus advice using 4SURE products and app-based technology

The 4SURE blood glucose meter (4SURE Smart, NIPRO (Figure 2)) and the combined blood glucose and blood ketone meter (4SURE Smart Duo (Figure 3)) both exceed the updated ISO standards and are simple to...

Development and validation of a pocket guide for the prevention of diabetic foot ulcers

This study is based on evidence-based nursing practice and takes a methodological approach. The development and validation of the management model complies with the principles of the International...

The lived experience of patients from an ethnic group in Indonesia undergoing diabetic foot ulcer treatment

This study aimed to explore the lived experience of the Batak Karo ethnic group regarding diabetic foot ulcer treatment. Five themes emerged from the data..

Introducing a very low carbohydrate diet for a child with type 1 diabetes

The patient was a 5-year-old boy who was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at the age of 4 years and 9 months. Before being hospitalised, he showed symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), such as...

Minimising pain and medical adhesive related skin injuries in vulnerable patients

When adhesive tapes or dressings are removed from unprotected skin, varying amounts of superficial stratum corneum are removed along with them and this may be further exacerbated by the repeated...

NPWT: a gate of hope for patients with diabetic foot ulcers

A 51-year-old man with a history of 17 years of uncontrolled type 2 diabetes was referred to Imam Khomeini hospital in Urmia, West Azerbaijan Province, in 2018. He had a history of hepatitis B and...

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