Managing anaphylaxis in adults
Anaphylaxis is a severe and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction. The recognition and treatment of anaphylaxis remains complex and an area of continued professional development for health professionals. Prompt recognition of anaphylaxis and its subsequent treatment and management by the multidisciplinary team, including nurses and allied health professionals, is key as this increases the patient's chances of survival. Evidence-based clinical information on managing anaphylaxis will enable health professionals to provide safer patient care.
According to the World Allergy Organization's anaphylaxis guidance, anaphylaxis can be defined as:
‘A serious multi-systemic hypersensitivity reaction that is usually rapid in onset and may result in death.’
Turner et al (2019) stated that severe anaphylaxis is characterised by a potentially life-threatening compromise of the airway, breathing and/or the circulation, and may occur without typical skin features or circulatory shock being present. Anaphylactic reactions can be fatal within minutes. It is therefore essential that health professionals recognise the signs and symptoms of a reaction and implement the correct treatment immediately (Resuscitation Council UK (RCUK), 2021).
The aim of this article is to discuss the immediate emergency management and post-emergency management of an adult patient experiencing an anaphylactic reaction.
Anaphylactic episodes are increasing within the UK, with growing numbers of people presenting to hospitals. Between 2018 and 2019, data revealed that there were 3864 hospital admissions due to anaphylactic shock in adult patients, an increase on 3337 hospital admissions in 2015 to 2016 (NHS Digital, 2021) Overall, both adult and child admissions were 4482 in 2015-2016 and 5534 in 2018-2019).
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