Abolfotouh MA, Salam M, Bani Mustafa A, White D, Balkhy H. Prospective study of incidence and predictors of peripheral intravenous catheter-induced complications. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2014; 10:993-1001

Alexandrou E, Ray-Barruel G, Carr PJ Use of short peripheral intravenous catheters: characteristics, management, and outcomes worldwide. J Hosp Med. 2018; 13:(5)

Ben Abdelaziz R, Hafsi H, Hajji H Peripheral venous catheter complications in children: predisposing factors in a multicenter prospective cohort study. BMC Pediatr. 2017; 17:(1)

Blanco-Mavillard I, Rodríguez-Calero MÁ, de Pedro-Gómez J, Parra-García G, Fernández-Fernández I, Castro-Sánchez E. Incidence of peripheral intravenous catheter failure among inpatients: variability between microbiological data and clinical signs and symptoms. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2019; 8:(1)

Bloom BS. Taxonomy of educational objectives. The classification of educational goals.New York (NY): David McKay Company; 1956

Cicolini G, Simonetti V, Comparcini D Nurses' knowledge of evidence-based guidelines on the prevention of peripheral venous catheter-related infections: a multicentre survey. J Clin Nurs. 2014; 23:(17-18)2578-2588

Etafa W, Wakuma B, Tsegaye R, Takele T. Nursing students' knowledge on the management of peripheral venous catheters at Wollega University. PLoS One. 2020; 15:(9)

Gallant P, Schultz AA. Evaluation of a visual infusion phlebitis scale for determining appropriate discontinuation of peripheral intravenous catheters. J Infus Nurs. 2006; 29:(6)338-345

George K, Muninarayanappa B. Effectiveness of structured teaching program on knowledge and practices of staff nurses on prevention of intravenous cannulae complications. Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences. 2013; 1:(2)115-119

Gorski LA. The 2016 Infusion Therapy Standards of Practice. Home Healthc Now. 2017; 35:(1)10-18

Gorski LA, Hadaway L, Hagle ME Infusion Therapy Standards of Practice. J Infus Nurs. 2021; 44:(1S)S1-S224

Guanche-Sicilia A, Sánchez-Gómez MB, Castro-Peraza ME, Rodríguez-Gómez JÁ, Gómez-Salgado J, Duarte-Clíments G. Prevention and treatment of phlebitis secondary to the insertion of a peripheral venous catheter: a scoping review from a nursing perspective. Healthcare (Basel). 2021; 9:(5)

Infusion Nursing Standards of Practice. J Infus Nurs. 2006; 29:S1-92

Jackson A. Infection control—a battle in vein: infusion phlebitis. Nurs Times. 1998; 94:(4)68-71

Keleekai NL, Schuster CA, Murray CL Improving nurses' peripheral intravenous catheter insertion knowledge, confidence, and skills using a simulation-based blended learning program: a randomized trial. Simul Healthc. 2016; 11:(6)376-384

Mandal A, Raghu K. Study on incidence of phlebitis following the use of pherpheral intravenous catheter. J Family Med Prim Care. 2019; 8:(9)2827-2831

Marsh N, Webster J, Larson E, Cooke M, Mihala G, Rickar d CM. Observational study of peripheral intravenous catheter outcomes in adult hospitalized patients: a multivariable analysis of peripheral intravenous catheter failure. J Hosp Med. 2018; 13:(2)83-89

Martínez-Galiano JM, Parra-Anguita L, Delgado-Rodríguez M, González-Cabrera M. Nursing education in a real-life context: the teaching ward round. Nurs Rep. 2021; 11:(1)45-53

Milutinović D, Simin D, Zec D. Risk factor for phlebitis: a questionnaire study of nurses' perception. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2015; 23:(4)677-684

Nyamuryekung'e MK, Mmari EE, Patel MR. A missing piece: fracture of peripheral intravenous cannula, a case report. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2021; 78:296-299

Osti C, Khadka M, Wosti D, Gurung G, Zhao Q. Knowledge and practice towards care and maintenance of peripheral intravenous cannula among nurses in Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital, Nepal. Nurs Open. 2019; 6:(3)1006-1012

Parreira P, Vicente R, Bernardes RA The flushing procedure in nursing practices: A cross-sectional study with Portuguese and Brazilian nurses. Heliyon. 2020; 6:(8)

Ravik M, Havnes A, Bjørk IT. Conditions affecting the performance of peripheral vein cannulation during hospital placement: a case study. Nurs Res Pract. 2017; 2017

Ray-Barruel G, Xu H, Marsh N, Cooke M, Rickard CM. Effectiveness of insertion and maintenance bundles in preventing peripheral intravenous catheter-related complications and bloodstream infection in hospital patients: a systematic review. Infect Dis Health. 2019; 24:(3)152-168

NHS Scotland national HAI prevalence survey. Final Report 2007. (accessed 6 April 2022)

Saleh U. Theory guided practice in nursing. Journal of Nursing Research and Practice. 2018; (2)

Salgueiro-Oliveira AS, Basto ML, Braga LM, Arreguy-Sena C, Melo MN, Parreira PMSD. Nursing practices in peripheral venous catheter: phlebitis and patient safety (in English and Portuguese). Texto & Contexto Enfermagem. 2019; 28

Simonetti V, Comparcini D, Flacco ME, Di Giovanni P, Cicolini G. Nursing students' knowledge and attitude on pressure ulcer prevention evidence-based guidelines: a multicenter cross-sectional study. Nurse Educ Today. 2015; 35:(4)573-579

Takahashi T, Murayama R, Abe-Doi M Preventing peripheral intravenous catheter failure by reducing mechanical irritation. Sci Rep. 2020; 10:(1)

Urbanetto Jde S, Peixoto CG, May TA. Incidence of phlebitis associated with the use of peripheral IV catheter and following catheter removal (article in English, Portuguese, Spanish). Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2016; 24

Webster J, Osborne S, Rickard CM, New K. Clinically-indicated replacement versus routine replacement of peripheral venous catheters. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015; 14:(8)

Younas A, Quennell S. Usefulness of nursing theory-guided practice: an integrative review. Scand J Caring Sci. 2019; 33:(3)540-555

Zhang L, Cao S, Marsh N Infection risks associated with peripheral vascular catheters. J Infect Prev. 2016; 17:(5)207-213

Changes in nurses' knowledge and clinical practice in managing local IV complications following an education intervention

21 April 2022
Volume 31 · Issue 8



Peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) are the most common invasive route for the rapid administration of medication and fluids. The care of PVC sites after cannulation can pose challenges depending on nurses' level of knowledge and practice.


To transfer nurses' knowledge into practice on preventing common local complications of intravenous (IV) therapy.


A quasi-experimental study was undertaken.


A convenience sample of nurses from surgical and medical wards of a university hospital (n=64) was used. Pre- and post-education intervention levels of nurses' knowledge, practice and maintenance of PVCs, and the use of a visual infusion phlebitis scale to identify potential complications were assessed.


The effectiveness of the course was statistically significant for all three parameters (P<0.001).


The study highlighted the importance of ongoing education based on the latest available evidence to enable nurses to improve their knowledge and clinical practice with regard to PVC care and associated complications.

In hospitals, peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) are the most prevalent and commonly used intravenous (IV) route for administering fluids and medications throughout the body quickly. Although PVC insertion is relatively straightforward, it can be associated with complications such as extravascular infiltration, thrombophlebitis, haematoma, catheter-associated bloodstream infections, and air embolism (Nyamuryekung'e et al, 2021).

The incidence of PVC failure has been reported as 89.5 per 1000 catheter days (Takahashi et al, 2020): this and/or associated local complications consequently require prompt intervention. It is therefore often necessary to replace a PVC, a process that must adhere to local and international guidelines on the use and management of IV devices (Zhang et al, 2016; Ben Abdelaziz et al, 2017; Gorski et al 2017; Blanco-Mavillard et al, 2019; Gorski et al, 2021). The Infusion Nurses Society (INS) publishes Infusion Therapy Standards of Practice every 5 years, with the latest edition published last year (Gorski et al, 2021)—these are seen as the benchmark for good practice.

Register now to continue reading

Thank you for visiting British Journal of Nursing and reading some of our peer-reviewed resources for nurses. To read more, please register today. You’ll enjoy the following great benefits:

What's included

  • Limited access to clinical or professional articles

  • Unlimited access to the latest news, blogs and video content