Albrecht M, Wolf-Ostermann K, Friesacher H. Pflege und Technik—konventionelle oder IT-gestützte Pflegedokumentation—spiegelt die Praxis den theoretischen Diskurs wider? Eine empirische Studie aus dem Bereich der stationären Altenpflege. [Nursing and technology—conventional or IT-supported nursing documentation—does practice reflect the theoretical discourse? An empirical study in the field of inpatient care for the elderly]. Pflegewissenschaft. 2010; 10:(01)34-46

Ariens LFM, Schussler-Raymakers FML, Frima C Barriers and facilitators to eHealth use in daily practice: perspectives of patients and professionals in dermatology. J Med Internet Res.. 2017; 19:(9)

Bundesministerium für Gesundheit [Federal Office for Safety in Health Care]. Empfehlungen zur Einrichtung der ‘Österreichischen Plattform Gesundheitskompetenz’ [Recommendations for the establishment of the Austrian Platform on Health Competence]. 2015. (accessed 2 March 2020)

Bürki Sabbioni S, Kuster B, Baumberger D. eHealth aus der Sicht der Pflege [eHealth from a nursing perspective]. Swiss Medical Informatics. 2010; 68:24-30

Chang CP, Lee TT, Mills ME. Experience of home telehealth technology in older patients with diabetes. Comput Inform Nurs.. 2017; 35:(10)530-537

Chao D, Lin T, Ma WY. Enhanced self-efficacy and behavioral changes among patients with diabetes: cloud-based mobile health platform and mobile app service. JMIR Diabetes.. 2019; 4:(2)

Cui M, Wu X, Mao J, Wang X, Nie M. T2DM self-management via smartphone applications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2016; 11:(11)

Dieplinger AM. Welche Faktoren für oder gegen eine Landarztpraxis spielen heute eine wichtige Rolle? Fördernde und hemmende Motivatoren von niedergelassenen MedizinerInnen in der beruflichen Praxis. [Which factors for or against a country doctor's office play an important role today? Encouraging and inhibiting motivators of practicing medical professionals in professional practice] Ärzte Woche [Doctors Week]. 2016; 49:24-30

Dobrozsi S, Panepinto J. Patient-reported outcomes in clinical practice. Hematology.. 2015; 1:501-506

Fischer F, Krämer A. eHealth in Deutschland. Anforderungen und Potentiale innovativer Versorgungsstrukturen [eHealth in Germany. Requirements and potential of innovative care structures].Berlin-Heidlberg (Germany): Springer; 2016

Flodgren G, Rachas A, Farmer AJ, Inzitari M, Shepperd S. Interactive telemedicine: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.. 2015; (9)

Franch-Nadal J, Labrador Barba E, Gómez-García MC, Buil-Cosiales P, Millaruelo JM, Orera Peña ML. Patient-reported outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus: patients' and primary care physicians' perspectives in the Spanish health care system. Patient Prefer Adherence.. 2015; 9:1413-1422

Gesundheit Österreich GmbH [Austria Health]. E-Health für Gesundheitsfördernde Gesundheitseinrichtungen [E-health for health-promoting health facilities]. 2019. (accessed 2 March 2020)

Graf J, Simoes E, Wißlicen K Willingness of patients with breast cancer in the adjuvant and metastatic setting to use electronic surveys (ePRO) depends on sociodemographic factors, health-related quality of life, disease status and computer skills. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 2016; 76:(05)535-541

Greenwood DA, Gee PM, Fatkin KJ, Peeples M. A systematic review of reviews evaluating technology-enabled diabetes self-management education and support. J Diabetes Sci Technol.. 2017; 11:(5)1015-1027

Hao Y, Xu H. A prospective cohort study on the management of young patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes using mobile medical applications. Diabetes Therapy. 2018; 9:(5)2099-2106

Hien P, Böhm B, Claudi-Böhm S, Krämer C, Kohlhas K. Diabetes-Handbuch. [Diabetes handbook].Berlin-Heidelberg (Germany): Springer; 2013

Iljaz R, Brodnik A, Zrimec T, Cukjati I. E-Healthcare for diabetes mellitus type 2 patients: a randomized control trial in Slovenia. Zdravstveno Varstvo [Health Care]. 2017; 56:(3)150-157

Jeffrey B, Bagala M, Creighton A Mobile phone applications and their use in the self-management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative study among app users and non-app users. Diabetol Metab Syndr.. 2019; 11

Jensen R, Rothrock N, Morgan-Dewitt E The role of technical advances in the adoption and integration of patient-reported outcomes in clinical care. Med Care. 2015; 53:(2)153-159

Jeon E, Park HA, Jo S, Kang H, Lee JY. Mobile apps providing tailored nursing interventions for patients with metabolic syndrome. Stud Health Technol Inform.. 2016; 225:510-514

Koot D, Goh PSC, Lim RSM A mobile lifestyle management program (GlycoLeap) for people with type 2 diabetes: single-arm feasibility study. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2019; 7:(5)

Koivunen M, Saranto K. Nursing professionals' experiences of the facilitators and barriers to the use of telehealth applications: a systematic review of qualitative studies. Scand J Caring Sci.. 2017; 32:(1)24-44

Kumar S, Moseson H, Uppal J, Juusola JL. A diabetes mobile app with in-app coaching from a certified diabetes educator reduces A1C for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Educ.. 2018; 44:(3)226-236

Lie S, Karlsen B, Niemiec C, Graue M, Oftedal B. Written reflection in an eHealth intervention for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative study. Patient Prefer Adherence.. 2018; 12:(12)311-320

Lenzen-Schulte M. Was für Diabetespatienten wirklich zählt [What really matters for diabetes patients]. Deutsches Ärzteblatt [German Medical Journal]. 2016; 113:(43)23-27

Matusiewicz D, Pittelkau C, Elmer A. Electronic health (E-Health) und mobile health (mHealth). Transformation, innovation, disruption.Berlin: Medizinisch Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft [Medical Scientific Publishing Company]; 2018

Munster-Segev M, Fuerst O, Kaplan SA Incorporation of a stress reducing mobile app in the care of patients with type 2 diabetes: a prospective study. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2017; 5:(5)

Öberg U, Isaksson U, Jutterström L, Orre CJ, Hörnsten A. Perceptions of persons with type 2 diabetes treated in Swedish primary health care: qualitative study on using eHealth services for self-management support. JMIR Diabetes. 2017; 3:(1)

Odnoletkova I, Goderis G, Nobels F, Fieuws S, Aertgeerts B, Annemans L. Optimizing diabetes control in people with Type 2 diabetes through nurse-led telecoaching. Diabetic Med.. 2016; 33:(6)777-785

Rasmussen OW, Lauszus FF, Loekke M. Telemedicine compared with standard care in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized trial in an outpatient clinic. J Telemed Telecare. 2016; 22:(6)363-368

Redman BK. Advanced practice nursing ethics in chronic disease self-management.New York (NY): Springer; 2013

Schäfer A, Sichere Versorgung Abt-Zegelin A. Patientenedukation und Patientensicherheit greifen ineinander [Safe supply. Patient education and patient safety go hand in hand]. Die Schwester Der Pfleger [The Sister, the Nurse]. 2009; 48:(10)1-3

Schmeisl GW. Schulungsbuch für Diabetiker [Training Book for Diabetics].Munich (Germany): Elsevier; 2011

Sharma U, Clarke M. Nurses' and community support workers' experience of telehealth: a longitudinal case study. BMC Health Serv Res.. 2014; 14

Sorensen K, Pelikan JM, Röthlin F Health literacy in Europe: comparative results of the European health literacy survey (HLS-EU). Eur J Public Health. 2015; 25:(6)1053-1058

Sood A, Watts SA, Johanson JK, Hirth S, Aron DC. Telemedicine consultation for patients with diabetes mellitus: a cluster randomised controlled trial. J Telemed Telecare. 2018; 24:(6)385-391

Triller B. Freund oder Feind? Roboter in der Pflege [Friend or foe? Robots in care]. Altenpflege [Elderly Care]. 2016; 41:(10)20-25

von Storch K, Graaf E, Wunderlich M, Rietz C, Polidori MC, Woopen C. Telemedicine-assisted self-management program for type 2 diabetes patients. Diabetes Technol Ther.. 2019; 2:(9)514-521

Wild SH, Hanley J, Lewis SC Supported telemonitoring and glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes: the Telecscot diabetes pragmatic multicenter randomized controlled trial. Plos Med.. 2016; 13:(7)

World Health Organization. WHO guideline recommendations on digital interventions for health system strengthening. 2019. (accessed 28 February 2020)

World Health Organization. Diabetes: key facts. 2020. (accessed 27 February 2020)

Wu IXY, Kee JCY, Threapleton DE Effectiveness of smartphone technologies on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: systematic review with meta-analysis of 17 trials. Obes Rev.. 2018; 19:(6)825-838

eHealth systems for the optimised care of patients with type 2 diabetes

12 March 2020
Volume 29 · Issue 5



Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common diseases worldwide. The demands on health services are rising as more people are diagnosed with the condition. In order to meet this demand, eHealth systems are increasingly being integrated into nursing care.


Between November 2018 and February 2019, a literature search was carried out in the databases PubMed and CINAHL.


Twenty articles were found on nurses' use of eHealth systems, the majority with patients with diabetes. From this research, it would seem that eHealth systems have had a proven positive influence on patients' state of health and understanding of therapy. Subjectively perceived communication with the nursing staff also improved. Problems can arise in the implementation phase.


In the future, increasingly, nurses will have to integrate eHealth systems into the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. It is important that nurses understand such systems in order to guarantee a sustainable and successful implementation.

Healthcare systems are increasingly moving in the direction of patient-centeredness, meaning that, in recent decades, patients are have been participating in decisions concerning their own treatment (Bundesministerium für Gesundheit, 2015). As a result of this development, patients are becoming more empowered, making the old, paternalistic models obsolete in favour of the appropriate integration of patients as equal partners in their health care. In this era of equality between patients and nurses, eHealth systems offer the potential to support the health care of individuals (Gesundheit Österreich GmbH, 2019).

The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined eHealth as:

‘The use of information and communications technology in support of health and health-related fields.’

eHealth systems can be understood as a collective term for all electronic applications that make healthcare services more efficient. Among other things, this implies communication transfer and the exchange of information, interdisciplinary networking (Matusiewicz et al, 2018), nursing documentation and patient management, as well as performance records of all employees (Bürki Sabbioni et al, 2010). The rationale for using eHealth systems is the ever-increasing use of modern electronic recording methods, technological advances, and greater demand for monitoring and adequate patient involvement in their own treatment by government agencies, professionals, and investors in private healthcare companies (Jensen et al, 2015).

Register now to continue reading

Thank you for visiting British Journal of Nursing and reading some of our peer-reviewed resources for nurses. To read more, please register today. You’ll enjoy the following great benefits:

What's included

  • Limited access to clinical or professional articles

  • Unlimited access to the latest news, blogs and video content