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A systematic scoping review of undergraduate nursing hub-and-spoke placement models

09 March 2023
Volume 32 · Issue 5



While nursing education has been forecast to continue to grow, placement capacity is now the key factor precluding growth in supply.


To provide a comprehensive understanding of hub-and-spoke placements and their ability to increase placement capacity.


A systematic scoping review and narrative synthesis were used (Arksey and O'Malley, 2005). PRISMA checklist and ENTREQ reporting guidelines were followed.


The search returned 418 results. After a first and second screen 11 papers were included. Results suggest that hub-and-spoke models were generally evaluated favourably by nursing students, with a range of benefits reported. However, many of the studies included in the review were small and of low quality.


Given the exponential increase in applications to study nursing, hub-and-spoke placements appear to have the potential to better meet these increased demands, while also providing a number of benefits.

Clinical placements are an essential element of all pre-qualifying healthcare programmes. In the UK, nursing and midwifery placements currently account for 50% of programme hours, equating to 2300 hours of clinical placement during training (Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), 2018a). Internationally, there is evident variation in the number of hours allotted to practice learning. Nursing students in Australia and Canada undertake 800 hours (Australian Nursing and Midwifery Accreditation Council, 2019; Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing, 2022), in South Africa they undertake 2800 hours, while in New Zealand they undertake between 1100 and 1500 hours (Miller and Cooper, 2016). Many countries (Australia, Canada, Finland, USA, the UK) have included completion of these placement hours in their requirements for registration (American Nurses Association, 2021; Canadian Nurses Association, 2015; Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, 2016; Anderson et al, 2018; NMC, 2018b).

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