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Critical review of the evidence base regarding theories conceptualising the aetiology of psychosis

24 September 2020
15 min read
Volume 29 · Issue 17

Abstract

A critical review of literature related to the aetiology of psychosis was conducted with specific emphasis on genetics. It was found that, although many published articles were retrieved via database searches, the format of the information was disparate in presentation leading to unnecessary inconsistences. This suggests the need for insightful collaboration by authors and standardisation of published articles to prevent academic and specialism barriers remaining as a discouragement to non-specialists wishing to access this information.

The aim of this article is to critically discuss the aetiology of psychosis with the emphasis on genome research findings and the implications for this illness. Causal factors of psychosis have been controversial for many decades and countless explanatory models have been advanced by authors as a rationale for the illness: spiritual emergency (Crowley, 2006), stress vulnerability model (Zubin and Spring, 1977; Ursini et al, 2011), trauma (van Winkel et al, 2013), infections (Wockner et al, 2014), in utero (Uher, 2014), ethnicity (Korver et al, 2012; Schwartz and Blankenship, 2014), migration (Pinto et al, 2008), dopamine hypothesis (Tost et al, 2010; Melka et al, 2013), cannabis (French et al, 2015), heritability-environmental-risk (Plomin, 1994; van Nierop et al, 2013), neurodevelopmental/degeneration, genetics (Wockner et al, 2014), to cite a few. Bearing this in mind, although the trigger for symptoms of psychosis to develop has been theoretically postulated, the mechanism behind the trigger for the biological reaction remained speculative.

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