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Evidence-informed practice: simplifying and applying the concept for nursing students and academics

24 March 2022
16 min read
Volume 31 · Issue 6



Nurses' ability to apply evidence effectively in practice is a critical factor in delivering high-quality patient care. Evidence-based practice (EBP) is recognised as the gold standard for the delivery of safe and effective person-centred care. However, decades following its inception, nurses continue to encounter difficulties in implementing EBP and, although models for its implementation offer stepwise approaches, factors, such as the context of care and its mechanistic nature, act as barriers to effective and consistent implementation. It is, therefore, imperative to find a solution to the way evidence is applied in practice. Evidence-informed practice (EIP) has been mooted as an alternative to EBP, prompting debate as to which approach better enables the transfer of evidence into practice. Although there are several EBP models and educational interventions, research on the concept of EIP is limited. This article seeks to clarify the concept of EIP and provide an integrated systems-based model of EIP for the application of evidence in clinical nursing practice, by presenting the systems and processes of the EIP model. Two scenarios are used to demonstrate the factors and elements of the EIP model and define how it facilitates the application of evidence to practice. The EIP model provides a framework to deliver clinically effective care, and the ability to justify the processes used and the service provided by referring to reliable evidence.

Evidence-based practice (EBP) was first mentioned in the literature by Muir-Gray, who defined EBP as ‘an approach to decision-making in which the clinician uses the best available evidence in consultation with the patient to decide upon the option which suits the patient best’ (1997:97). Since this initial definition was set out in 1997, EBP has gained prominence as the gold standard for the delivery of safe and effective health care.

There are several models for implementing EBP. Examples include:

Although a comprehensive review of these models is beyond the scope of this article, a brief assessment reveals some commonalities among them. These include a) asking or selecting a practice question, b) searching for the best evidence, c) critically appraising and applying the evidence, d) evaluating the outcome(s) of patient care delivery, and e) disseminating the outcome(s).

Regardless of the benefits of EBP, and the existence of multiple EBP models intended to facilitate the application of evidence into practice, health professionals, including nurses, continue to struggle to implement it effectively (Ubbink et al, 2013). Critics of EBP have questioned its validity (Rubin, 2007; Nevo and Slonim-Nevo, 2011); the best practice and setting to support its use (Nutley et al, 2009); its failure to address the complexity of health and health care, as well as the patient's context (Muir-Gray, 1997; Reed et al, 2019), and its mechanistic approach (Epstein, 2009; Jerkert, 2015). Some of these criticisms are outlined below.

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