Barnett AH, Krentz AJ, Strojek K The efficacy of self-monitoring of blood glucose in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes treated with a gliclazide modified release–based regimen. A multicentre, randomized, parallel-group, 6-month evaluation (DINAMIC 1 study). Diabetes Obes Metab. 2008; 10:(12)1239-47

Bandodkar AJ, Wang J. Non-invasive wearable electrochemical sensors: a review. Trends Biotechnol. 2014; 32:(7)363-71

Bandodkar AJ, Jia W, Yardımcı S Tattoo-based noninvasive glucose monitoring: a proof-of-concept study. Anal Chem. 2015; 87:(1)394-398

Beauchamp T, Childress J. Principles of biomedical ethics, 7th edn. New York: Oxford University Press; 2013

Bennett MG, Naranja J. Getting nano tattoos right—a checklist of legal and ethical hurdles for an emerging nanomedical technology. Nanomedicine. 2013; 9:(6)729-31

Burge MR, Mitchell S, Sawyer A, Schade DS. Continuous glucose monitoring: the future of diabetes management. Diabetes Spectrum. 2008; 21:(2)112-119

Cash KJ, Clark HA. Nanosensors and nanomaterials for monitoring glucose in diabetes. Trends Mol Med. 2010; 16:(12)584-593

Chew B-H, Shariff-Ghazali S, Fernandez A. Psychological aspects of diabetes care: effecting behavioural change in patients. World J Diabetes. 2014; 5:(6)796-808

Clarke WL, Anderson S, Breton M, Patek S, Kashmer L, Kovatchev B. Closed-loop artificial pancreas using subcutaneous glucose sensing and insulin delivery and a model predictive control algorithm: the Virginia experience. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2009; 3:(5)1031-1038

The relationship of glycemic exposure (HbA1c) to the risk of development and progression of retinopathy in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Diabetes. 1995; 44:(8)968-983

Facts and figures.London: Diabetes UK; 2018

Ebbesen M, Jensen TG. Nanomedicine: techniques, potentials, and ethical implications. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2006; (5)

Ebbesen M, Andersen S, Besenbacher F. Ethics in nanotechnology: starting from scratch?. Bulletin of Science, Technololgy & Society. 2006; 26:(6)451-462

Eborall HC, Dallosso HM, McNicol S Explaining engagement in self-monitoring among participants of the DESMOND Self-monitoring Trial: a qualitative interview study. Fam Pract. 2015; 32:(5)596-602

El-Alti L, Sandman L, Munthe C. Person centered care and personalized medicine: irreconcilable opposites or potential companions?. Health Care Anal. 2017;

Gale EAM. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study [UKPDS]. Diapedia. 2014;

Ghalamfarsa G, Hojjat-Farsangi M, Mohammadnia-Afrouzi M Application of nanomedicine for crossing the blood-brain barrier: theranostic opportunities in multiple sclerosis. J Immunotoxil. 2016; 13:(5)603-619

Gluyas H. Patient-centred care: improving healthcare outcomes. Nurs Stand. 2015; 30:(4)50-59

Goddard K, Roudsari A, Wyatt JC. Automation bias: A systematic review of frequency, effect mediators, and mitigators. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2012; 19:(1)121-127

Guadagnini R, Halamoda Kenzoui B, Walker L Toxicity screenings of nanomaterials: Challenges due to interference with assay processes and components of classic invitro tests. Nanotoxicology. 2015; 9:13-24

Hase S, Kenyon C. Moving from andragogy to heutagogy: implications for VE: Proceedings of Research to Reality: Putting VET Research to Work.Adelaide SA: Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association; 2001

Heinemann L. Finger pricking and pain: a never ending story. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2008; 2:(5)919-921

Holt P. Blood glucose monitoring in diabetes. Nurs Stand. 2014; 28:(27)52-58

Hughes MD. The business of self-monitoring of blood glucose: a market profile. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2009; 3:(5)1219-1223

The impact of emerging technology on nursing care: warp speed ahead. 2013. (accessed 14 January 2019)

International Diabetes Federation. IDF diabetes atlas. 2017. (accessed: 8 January 2019)

Juliano RL. The future of nanomedicine: promises and limitations. Science and Public Policy. 2012; 39:(1)99-104

Kelly K. The inevitable: understanding the 12 technological forces that will shape our future.New York, NY: Penguin Books; 2016

Kerr D. Poor numeracy: the elephant in the diabetes technology room. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2010; 4:(6)1284-1287

Kroto HW, Heath JR, O'Brien SC, Curl RF, Smalley RE. C60: Buckminsterfullerene. Nature. 1985; 318:(6042)162-163

Long R, McShane M. Optical instrument design for interrogation of dermally-implanted luminescent microparticle sensors. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2008; 2008:5656-5659

The roles of nanotechnology and internet of nano things in healthcare transformation. 2017. (accessed 14 January 2017)

Malysheva A, Lombi E, Voelcker NH. Bridging the divide between human and environmental nanotoxicology. Nat Nanotechnol. 2015; 10:(10)835-44

Marchant G. Small is beautiful: what can nanotechnology do for personalized medicine?. Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine. 2009; 7:(4)231-237

Maynard AD. Why we need risk innovation. Nat Nanotechnol. 2015; 10:(9)730-731

Meetoo DD. Insulin: an evolving paradigm in diabetes management. British Journal of Healthcare Management. 2013; 19:8-15

Nanotechnology and the future of diabetes management. 2009. (accessed 8 January 2019)

Mnyusiwalla A, Daar AS, Singer PA. Mind the gap: science and ethics in nanotechnology. Nanotechnology. 2003; 14:(3)R9-R13

Moorley C, Chinn T. Developing nursing leadership in social media. J Adv Nurs. 2016; 72:(3)514-520

Morrison I. Health care in the new millennium. Vision, values and leadership, 2nd edn. San Francisco CA: Jossey-Bass; 2002

Mou X, Lennartz MR, Loegering DJ, Stenken JA. Long-term calibration considerations during subcutaneous microdialysis sampling in mobile rats. Biomaterials. 2010; 31:(16)4530-4539

Nathan DM. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study at 30 Years: Overview. Diabetes Care. 2014; 37:(1)9-16

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Type 2 diabetes in adults: management. [NG28]. 2015. (accessed 8 January 2019)

Pickup JC, Zhi ZL, Khan F, Saxl T, Birch DJS. Nanomedicine and its potential in diabetes research and practice. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2008; 24:(8)604-610

Poolsup N, Suksomboon N, Rattanasookchit S. Meta-analysis of the benefits of self-monitoring of blood glucose on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients: an update. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2009; 11:(12)775-784

Punthakee Z, Goldenberg R, Katz P Definition, Classification and diagnosis of diabetes, prediabetes and metabolic syndrome. Can J Diabetes. 2018; 42:S10-S15

Rodbard D. Evaluating quality of glycemic control: graphical displays of hypo- and hyperglycemia, time in target range, and mean glucose. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2015; 9:(1)56-62

Rodbard D. Continuous glucose monitoring: a review of successes, challenges, and opportunities. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2016; 18:S2-S13

Thompson RE. Nanotechnology: science fiction? Or next challenge for the ethics committee?. Physician Exec. 2007; 33:(3)64-66

Tomky D, Tomky D, Cypress M, Dang D, Maryniuk M, Peyrot M, Mensing C. Aade Position Statement. Diabetes Educ. 2008; 34:(3)445-449

Ventola CL. The nanomedicine revolution: part 1: emerging concepts. P T. 2012; 37:(9)512-517

Vigersky RA. Escaping the haemoglobin A1c-centric world in evaluating diabetes mellitus interventions. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2015; 9:(5)1148-1151

Wang J. Electrochemical glucose biosensors. Chem Rev. 2008; 108:(2)814-825

Smart tattoo: technology for monitoring blood glucose in the future

24 January 2019
Volume 28 · Issue 2


New ways of measuring blood glucose bring hope of easing the burden of diabetes management for patients living with the conditions. The smart tattoo is an innovation that represents a nascent nanotechnology, which is designed to be implanted within the skin to provide continuous and reliable glucose detection for individuals diagnosed with diabetes. The potential benefits of the smart tattoo are compelling not only due to the potential of these nanodevices to prevent diabetic complications and decrease the related social costs, but also due to ease of use and relative user comfort. However, despite the advantages of the smart tattoo, it is important that health professionals, in embracing nanotechnology, understand the ethical implications of using these innovative devices.

Diabetes mellitus is a term used to describe a heterogeneous metabolic disorder characterised by the presence of hyperglycaemia due to impairment of insulin secretion, defective insulin action or both (Punthakee et al, 2018). The prevalence of this condition is escalating at an unprecedented rate across the world without sign of abatement. In the UK, for example, an estimated 3.7 million people are living with a diagnosis of diabetes, an increase of 100 000 since 2017 (Diabetes UK, 2018). The global picture is equally worrying, with 425 million currently estimated to have diabetes, with the figure expected to peak at 629 million in 2045. If longevity is taken into account, the figure could reach 693 million (International Diabetes Federation, 2017).

In an attempt to halt the problem, health professionals must be given effective training on diabetes prevention and care, in order to reduce the devastating human, social and economic impact of the condition (Meetoo, 2013).

Register now to continue reading

Thank you for visiting British Journal of Nursing and reading some of our peer-reviewed resources for nurses. To read more, please register today. You’ll enjoy the following great benefits:

What's included

  • Limited access to clinical or professional articles

  • Unlimited access to the latest news, blogs and video content