The Ostomy Skin Tool 2.0: a new instrument for assessing peristomal skin changes
Peristomal skin complications (PSCs) are frequently reported postoperative complications. PSCs can present visibly or as symptoms such as pain, itching or burning sensations.
To develop a new tool that can capture a range of sensation symptoms together with visible complications and an objective assessment of discolouration in the peristomal area.
Consensus from qualitative interviews with health professionals and people with an ostomy, and input from expert panels, formed the basis of a patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaire. A decision tree model was used to define a combined score including PRO and objectively assessed discolouration area.
Six elements were included in the PRO questionnaire and four health states representing different severity levels of the peristomal skin were defined.
The Ostomy Skin Tool 2.0 is a sensitive tool that can be used to follow changes in the peristomal skin on a regular basis and thereby help prevent severe PSCs.
Creation of an ostomy in the abdominal area is a commonly performed general surgical practice. The consequence, however, can be life-changing for the patient and, despite careful pre-operative planning, postoperative complications are likely to occur (Shabbir and Britton, 2010; Malik et al, 2018). Peristomal skin complications (PSCs) are some of the most frequently reported complications and the latest evidence has shown that up to 88% of people with an ostomy suffer from PSCs (Fellows et al, 2021). The Ostomy Skin Tool (OST) was developed in 2008 and validated as a standardised instrument for assessing both the extent and severity of changes in the peristomal skin condition of people living with an ostomy (Martins et al, 2008; Jemec et al, 2011). The OST is primarily based on clinician-reported outcomes and used to document the visual signs of the peristomal skin. Specifically, this tool focuses on changes in three domains: discolouration (D), erosion (E), and tissue overgrowth (T), summarised in a DET score (Martins et al, 2010). The three domains are scored according to the percentage of area under the adhesive that is impacted and the severity of the symptoms such as bleeding, itching, pain, burning and moisture. The composite DET score is defined on a scale from 0 to 15, and subjects are subsequently assigned to one of the four severity categories: ‘normal skin’ (DET=0), ‘mild’ (DET=2-3), ‘moderate’ (DET=4-6), or ‘severe’ (DET=7-15) (Jemec et al, 2011). Thus, the OST has been used for many years as a validated instrument for health professionals to perform standardised evaluation and treatment of PSCs.
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