References

Developing diversionary pathways for indigenous youth with foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD): A three community study in Western Australia. Report to the Criminology Research Advisory Council August 2018. 2018. https://tinyurl.com/ud53n4s (accessed 28 July 2021)

British Medical Association. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a guide for healthcare professionals. 2007a. https://tinyurl.com/tsyjs2pk (accessed 28 July 2021)

British Medical Association. Alcohol and pregnancy. Preventing and managing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. 2007b. https://tinyurl.com/4xmzprfu (accessed 28 July 2021)

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: one minute to midnight. 2021. https://tinyurl.com/vcbjrzv5 (accessed 28 July 2021)

Chasnoff IJ, Wells AM, King L. Misdiagnosis and missed diagnoses in foster and adopted children with prenatal alcohol exposure. Pediatrics.. 2015; 135:(2)264-270 https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-2171

Del Campo M, Jones KL. A review of the physical features of the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Eur J Med Genet.. 2017; 60:(1)55-64 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2016.10.004

Department of Health. UK Chief Medical Officers' alcohol guidelines review. Summary of the proposed new guidelines. 2016. https://tinyurl.com/3ffn6kex (accessed 28 July 2021)

Fast DK, Conry J. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and the criminal justice system. Dev Disabil Res Rev.. 2009; 15:(3)250-257 https://doi.org/10.1002/ddrr.66

Guerri C, Bazinet A, Riley EP. Foetal alcohol spectrum disorders and alterations in brain and behaviour. Alcohol Alcohol.. 2009; 44:(2)108-114 https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agn105

Health Education England. Making every contact count (MECC) in health care settings. 2015. https://tinyurl.com/vtskzc4n (accessed 28 July 2021)

Hendry C, Farley A, McLafferty E. Development, growth and repair from conception to old age. Nurs Stand.. 2012; 26:(50)44-9 https://doi.org/10.7748/ns2012.08.26.50.44.c9238

Hoyme HE, Kalberg WO, Elliott AJ Updated clinical guidelines for diagnosing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Pediatrics.. 2016; 138:(2) https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-4256

Kobor MS, Weinberg J. Focus on: epigenetics and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Alcohol Res Health.. 2011; 34:(1)29-37

Leenaars LS, Denys K, Henneveld D, Rasmussen C. The impact of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders on families: evaluation of a family intervention program. Community Men Health J.. 2012; 48:(4)431-435 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-011-9425-6

Lees B, Elliott EJ, Allsop S Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder resources for educators working within primary school settings: a scoping review protocol. BMJ Open.. 2021; 11:(4) https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-045497

Little G, Beaulieu C. Multivariate models of brain volume for identification of children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Hum Brain Mapp.. 2020; 41:(5)1181-1194 https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.24867

Lussier AA, Weinberg J, Kobor MS. Epigenetics studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: where are we now?. Epigenomics.. 2017; 9:(3)291-311 https://doi.org/10.2217/epi-2016-0163

May PA, Keaster C, Bozeman R Prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome in a Rocky Mountain region city. Drug Alcohol Depend.. 2015; 155:118-127 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.08.006

McQuire C, Mukherjee R, Hurt L Screening prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in a region of the United Kingdom: a population-based birth-cohort study. Prev Med.. 2019; 118:344-351 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.10.013

Mukherjee R, Eastman N, Turk J, Hollins S. Fetal alcohol syndrome: law and ethics. Lancet.. 2007; 369:(9568)1149-50 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60542-X

Mukherjee R, Wray E, Curfs L, Hollins S. Estimation of alcohol content of wine, beer and spirits to evaluate exposure risk in pregnancy: pilot study using a questionnaire and pouring task in England. The International Journal of Alcohol and Drug Research.. 2013; 2:71-78 https://doi.org/10.7895/ijadr.v2i3.78

Mukherjee RAS. Diagnosis and management of foetal alcohol specturm disorder. Curr Opin Psychiatry.. 2019; 32:(2)92-96 https://doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0000000000000479

Nash A, Davies L. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: what pediatric providers need to know. J Pediatr Health Care.. 2017; 31:(5)594-606 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedhc.2017.04.002

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Health and social care directorate. Quality standards. Briefing paper. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. 2019. https://tinyurl.com/3ynhj7h5 (accessed 28 July 2021)

National Organisation for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Over 400 conditions co-occur. It's NOT about ‘the face’. 2021. http://tinyurl.com/52yydwhr (accessed 4 August 2021)

NHS Digital. Statistics on alcohol, England 2019. 2019. https://tinyurl.com/23vzmk7s (accessed 28 July 2021)

NHS website. Fetal alcohol syndrome. 2021. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/foetal-alcohol-syndrome/ (accessed 28 July 2021)

Nykjaer C, Alwan NA, Greenwood DC Maternal alcohol intake prior to and during pregnancy and risk of adverse birth outcomes: evidence from a British cohort. J Epidemiol Community Health.. 2014; 68:(6)542-549 https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2013-202934

Office for National Statistics. Adult drinking habits in Great Britain: supplementary data. 2018. https://tinyurl.com/rjev9xc (accessed 28 July 2021)

Popova S, Lange S, Probst C, Gmel G, Rehm J. Estimation of national, regional, and global prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy and fetal alcohol syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Glob Health.. 2017; 5:(3)e290-e299 https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(17)30021-9

Riley EP, Infante MA, Warren KR. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: an overview. Neuropsychol Rev.. 2011; 21:(2)73-80 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-011-9166-x

Schölin L, Mukherjee RAS, Aiton N Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: an overview of current evidence and activities in the UK. Arch Dis Child.. 2021a; 106:(7)636-640 https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2020-320435

Schölin L, Watson J, Dyson J, Smith LA. Midwives' views on alcohol guidelines: a qualitative study of barriers and facilitators to implementation in UK antenatal care. Sex Reprod Healthc.. 2021b; 29 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.srhc.2021.100628

Stade BC, Bailey C, Dzendoletas D, Sgro M, Dowswell T, Bennett D. Psychological and/or educational interventions for reducing alcohol consumption in pregnant women and women planning pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.. 2009; (2) https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004228.pub2

Wattendorf DJ, Muenke M. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Am Fam Physician.. 2005; 72:(2)279-285

Welch-Carre E. The neurodevelopmental consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure. Adv Neonatal Care.. 2005; 5:(4)217-229 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adnc.2005.04.007

Wise J. Guidance on fetal alcohol syndrome aims to improve diagnosis and treatment in Scotland. BMJ.. 2019; 364 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l396

World Health Organization. LD2F.00. Fetal alcohol syndrome. 2021. https://tinyurl.com/npn7sbe8 (accessed 28 July 2021)

A brief overview of fetal alcohol syndrome for health professionals

12 August 2021
7 min read
Volume 30 · Issue 15
Figure 2. Facial characteristics that may be seen in FASD
Figure 2. Facial characteristics that may be seen in FASD

Abstract

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are caused by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). They cause epigenetic changes, permanent neurodevelopmental deficits, and anomalies in growth and facial structure. This article enforces the need for health and social care professionals to have a greater understanding and awareness of how FAS and FASD may impact on the individual, the family and the community, to enable them to provide the most effective preventive and supportive care possible.

Alcohol is widely used in society despite concerns that it can cause physical, social, mental and economic harms (NHS Digital, 2019; NHS website, 2021). Alcoholic beverages contain different percentages of ethanol, all of which are teratogenic. One form of long-lasting damage that can be caused by alcohol is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), part of the umbrella term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) (British Medical Association (BMA), 2007a; National Institute or Health and Care Excellence (NICE), 2019). FAS affects individuals and families in a variety of ways, causing neurological (Lamb et al, 2019), social (Lees at al, 2021) and physical complications (May et al, 2015), and it is important to raise awareness, consider preventive strategies and the possibility of mitigating further damage (Stade et al, 2009). However, the prevalence of FASDs is difficult to determine (Schölin et al, 2021a).

Register now to continue reading

Thank you for visiting British Journal of Nursing and reading some of our peer-reviewed resources for nurses. To read more, please register today. You’ll enjoy the following great benefits:

What's included

  • Limited access to clinical or professional articles

  • Unlimited access to the latest news, blogs and video content