Continence issues in individuals living with multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive neurological disease of the central nervous system, which appears to have both inflammatory and degenerative components (Johns Hopkins University, 2021). It is characterised by areas of demyelination (or damage to the coating around nerve fibres) and the formation of plaques along the nerve pathways (Johns Hopkins University, 2021). It may be triggered by either environmental factors or appear in genetically susceptible individuals, and is associated with severe side effects and disabling symptoms (Alshammari et al, 2019).
There are several types of MS, including relapsing and remitting (relapses of symptoms with periods of partial or complete remission), primary progressive (symptoms gradually get worse), secondary progressive (sustained build-up of disability), and progressive relapsing (Alshammari et al, 2019). All are life-changing forms of the disease that affect about 2.5 million people globally, with its incidence on the increase (Lin et al, 2019).
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